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International Journal of Oral Implantology
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Int J Oral Implantol (Berl) 13 (2020), No. 3     2. Sep. 2020
Int J Oral Implantol (Berl) 13 (2020), No. 3  (02.09.2020)

Page 279-290, PubMed:32879932


Influence of abutment height and vertical mucosal thickness on early marginal bone loss around implants: A randomised clinical trial with an 18-month post-loading clinical and radiographic evaluation
Spinato, Sergio / Stacchi, Claudio / Lombardi, Teresa / Bernardello, Fabio / Messina, Marcello / Dovigo, Sergio / Zaffe, Davide
Purpose: To investigate the influence of vertical mucosal thickness on marginal bone loss around implants with short and long prosthetic abutments and the marginal bone loss progression rate up to 18 months after prosthetic loading.
Materials and methods: Internal hex platform-switched implants were placed equicrestally using a two-stage protocol in the posterior mandible of two groups of patients with different vertical mucosal thickness, thin (≤ 2.0 mm) and thick (> 2.0 mm). Elevated prosthetic abutments of different heights (1 mm or 3 mm) were randomly assigned for single screw-retained crowns in both groups. Mesial and distal marginal bone loss were measured at implant placement (T0) and crown delivery (after 4 months [T1]), and after 6 (T2), 12 (T3) and 18 months (T4) of functional loading.
Results: Eighty implants were placed in eighty patients. Three patients dropped out at T2. At T4, 74 out of 77 implants were functioning, resulting in a 96% survival rate. Marginal bone loss (mean ± SE) at T2 was significantly greater in the 1-mm abutment groups (0.61 ± 0.09 mm with thin mucosa; 0.64 ± 0.07 mm with thick mucosa) than in the 3-mm abutment groups (0.32 ± 0.07 mm with thin mucosa; 0.26 ± 0.04 mm with thick mucosa). The marginal bone loss pattern over 18 months of loading showed that the greatest amount of marginal bone loss occurred during the first 6 months of function.
Conclusions: Internal hex platform-switched implants placed equicrestally and restored with 1-mm abutments presented greater marginal bone loss than identical implants with 3-mm abutments, with vertical mucosal thickness having no significant influence.

Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors have no direct or indirect financial interest in the products listed or information presented in this article.

Keywords: abutment height, marginal bone loss, platform switching, vertical mucosal thickness